In: Epstein C, Hassold T, Lott I, Nadel L, Patterson D, editors. Thus, early literacy assessment is essential. Increasing parent—child turn taking in interactions and improving responsiveness to child communication also are associated with positive outcomes in child language. Generally, primary approaches to behavioral treatment of speech disorders, regardless of level or theoretical underpinnings, include practice moving and coordinating movements of oral structures such as the lips, tongue, and soft palate to improve speech production. Maximizing the communication rate for adults who have acquired an appropriate communication mode is then addressed. The writing lab approach to language instruction and intervention. Characteristics and qualities of the play dates of children with Down syndrome: Emerging or true friendships? They have found, however, that attention treatments that focus on learning or relearning of specific skills that are important to desired outcomes or behaviors that have functional significance resulted in significant improvement.
Strand is engaged in the development of a treatment program for childhood apraxia of speech, a speech disorder due to deficits in planning and programming speech movement gestures. However, speech and language services are not provided exclusively by public school systems; they also can be found in some community-based programs, such as Head Start. The chapter begins with an overview of the factors that influence treatment of speech and language disorders in children. Still, children with Down syndrome scored lower than mental age-matched typically developing children on standardized assessments of expressive vocabulary in several studies ; ;. While all of these approaches assume that improved language will result from increased attention to linguistic stimuli, none of them are motivated by an analysis of the ways that specific linguistic processes recruit select attentional operations in the service of language. When overall speech intelligibility is extremely limited, intervention includes augmentative and alternative communication prostheses, discussed earlier see. For children younger than 3 years of age, services may be provided in the home.
Phonological characteristics of children with Down syndrome or fragile X syndrome. The literature also indicates that recovery rates are higher in preschool than in school-age children, but longitudinal randomized trials comparing treatment with untreated recovery are needed. This practice is predicated in part on the belief that treating in these natural settings will promote generalization of learning to these settings. Consult with family, caregivers, or the individual. If your child has qualifies for special education services, you and a team of educators will develop an.
We conclude with a discussion of clinical implications and research directions. Since the patient often appears to understand, the caregiver may interpret a failure to comply as a lack of cooperation. Compounding this problem, routinized exclusion from stroke research leads to bias in the evidence base and subsequent inequalities in service provision. Journal Article This article starts by examining the background to dyslexia support within the context of the National Literacy Strategy in the United Kingdom. Etiology and pathogenesis of Down syndrome: Proceedings of the international Down syndrome research conference. Finally, Houston, Robertson, and Wray take the perspective of what professionals need to know as they promote listening, spoken language, and literacy for this special population.
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Treatment programs are, therefore, designed to build on the child's developmental level, regardless of the child's age. For example, , have performed meta-analyses on the effectiveness of language interventions and concluded that treatment programs are effective for improving vocabulary with a standardized mean difference of 0. The fast mapping task was developed to determine how children use syntactic cues to help fix the meaning of novel verbs. Knowledge of the cognitive-behavioral phenotype of Down syndrome, such as the neurocognitive profile and developmental trajectory, may also guide intervention practices. Researchers have recommended a curriculum-based model of treatment for school-age children with language disorders ; ;.
For example, found that a group of 31 boys with Down syndrome produced less complex noun phrases, verb phrases, sentence structures, and less complex questions and negations during conversation with an examiner than younger typically developing boys of similar nonverbal mental age. By 14 months of age, for example, most infants are able to draw the caregiver's attention to something by pointing and naming. Guiberson and Crowe, next, provide a scoping review of literature that addresses when children or adolescents have hearing loss, when instruction and intervention need to account for the process of learning English as another language, or both. Down syndrome: Visions for the 21 st century. Literacy deserves attention from researchers and clinicians, as even basic literacy skills can improve quality of life for individuals with Down syndrome by promoting independence and the ability to be employed.
First, the model does not readily explain certain features of aphasic syndromes. Within the early intervention context, numerous intervention approaches have been developed to promote the child's growth along a developmental continuum. Similarly, children who are born deaf or hard of hearing have very high rates of speech and language impairment. Very early research on talk to children revealed that parents sometimes rephrase things children say. The origin and etiology of trisomy 21. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1990.
This chapter describes the neurobiological rationales for, and current implementations of, imitation in aphasia therapy. . Sturm, Willmes, Orgass, and Hartje 1997 demonstrated that specific attention functions improve in patients with localized vascular lesions only when specific training is received for that function. Expressive vocabulary ability of toddlers with Williams syndrome or Down syndrome: A comparison. In addition to these targets, the authors observe that motor learning can also be applied to intonation and stress patterns needed for accurate speech production see also.