But the confederation was cumbersome and inefficient. Note: An excellent discussion of Shay's Rebellion appears. The wealthy opposed free education, as they did not want their sons to mingle with the vulgar lower classes. However, the Second Continental Congress, originally formed for the purpose of mutual defense of the thirteen colonies, suddenly found itself in 1776 waging a full-scale war and governing a nation. Nine states responded to the invitation, but only five sent representatives. In both cases, Americans had realized that their liberties were threatened when not protected by a strong enough central government. There was no president or federal judiciary.
The governing body that eventually created the Articles of Confederation was based on this tradition of defensive unions, but was formed in a time of peace—not actually preparing for war. No way to run a railroad, much less a nation. The runaways would take refuge in the growing number of African-American communities in the north. Eight days after the signing of the Declaration of Independence, a committee headed by John Dickinson of Pennsylvania submitted a blueprint for a powerful national government. The greatest movement towards emancipation in the South was the relaxation of manumission laws. Issue was settled by Great Compromise,or Connecticut Compromise: It provided for two houses of Congress: · Senate, two chosen by legislatures of each state · House of Representatives chosen by Popular Vote. The shape of the new government, as established by the Articles of Confederation was largely influenced by the radicals' point of view.
Pressured by these financial burdens, few states were likely to approve of new national taxes, or import tariffs that would raise the prices of all goods. See the writings of Mercy Otis Warren, Abigail Adams and other notable women of that era. As religious freedom expanded, new faiths emerged and some of the first national church bodies were formed. Riots and social conflict marked the Revolutionary era in America. Too few states were represented to carry out the original purpose of the meeting, which was to discuss the regulation of interstate commerce--but there was a larger topic at question, specifically, the weakness of the Articles of Confederation. British ports often only accepted American goods if they were carried aboard British ships.
For example, Georgia chartered its University in 1785 and the University of North Carolina was chartered in 1789 and opened in 1795. Maryland finally gave in when New York surrendered its western claims, and Virginia finally relinquished a large region north of the Ohio River in early 1781. Even before the Peace of Paris, the delegates of the Continental Congress recognized that they were essentially a legislative body exercising governmental powers without any constitutional authority. In determining questions in the united states in Congress assembled, each state shall have one vote. The break from Britain fueled the national desire to create an American culture.
The clear impetus was that the confederation was not working. The Rebellion, such as it was, easily dispersed; but rumors spread all over that there might be another revolution. Perhaps most important was the idea of virtue: Where did virtue reside in the political structure, and how could virtue be cultivated? Slavery and the Promise of Liberty The American Revolution did not abolish slavery, although in some states the innate contradiction between the institution and the Declaration were apparent. There, the problem was not too much paper money, but too little. After independence, all states but Georgia ended the trade; but South Carolina reopened it later.
Every state shall abide by the determinations of the united states in congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them. The state constitutions had some obvious limitations. Before the Revolution, three states, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania, had stopped slave importation. The Anglican Church became the Episcopal, and in 1789, the Presbyterian Church held it's first general assembly in Philadelphia. New Jersey Plan: small state plan One house of Congress; all states equally represented.
The office of governor was generally weak, and elected assemblies were given the most power. States increasingly looked to own interests; national interest continued to suffer as a result. The lack of a uniform national policy on trade hurt them also. They were promptly ratified by every state except Maryland who insisted that the seven states who claimed lands west of the Appalachians —New York, Virginia, Massachusetts, Connecticut, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia—should cede them to Congress Maryland cited several reasons for this requirement. Navigation on the river was important to new settlements in Kentucky and Tennessee. The Methodist Episcopal Church formed in 1784 in a general conference in Baltimore under the leadership of Bishop Francis Asbury.
The war was not yet won; states who were fighting to wrest themselves away from a strong central government were not likely to accept another without prolonged rancorous debate; which the country could ill afford while it was fighting a war. Of course those who would benefit the most would be the speculators who had bought the bonds at discount, and who would become immensely wealthy. In no area was this more apparent than in regard to taxation and finance. He proposed an import duty of five percent to finance the national budget and guarantee the payment of war debts. Consensus worked for the thirteen states when faced with the imposing task of defeating the British; however, when Congress approached the topic of drafting a constitution that would serve to direct the affairs of the nation, numerous controversies erupted over how to establish a balance of power between individual states and a national governing body. State legislatures were at liberty to ignore the requisitions if they so chose.