Physical evidence in computer crimes is different from that in traditional crimes. Hardware Controls A computer's central processor contains circuitry for detection and, in some cases, correction of certain processing errors. Security threats related to computer crime or abuse include: 1. Dial Diddling: Changing data before or during input, often to change the contents of a database. Se trata de una variante del phishing. Regular and frequent password changes 2.
Auditors select a sample of the transactions processed by the system and trace their processing form the original documents on to the totals they affect. Encryption is the transformation of data into a form that is unreadable to anyone without an appropriate decryption key. Functional checks Database Controls Information systems files and databases hold the very data we seek to protect form destruction and from improper access or modification. Masquerading A timekeeping clerk fills out data forms for hours worked by 300 employees for a railroad. This means that every transaction can be traced to the total figures it affects, and each total figure can be traced back to the transactions which gave rise to it. Shells or cold sites are computer-ready buildings, available to accept equipment on very short notice.
If controls are found operative, then a limited substantive testing will be sufficient. Store paper printouts of computerized data away from direct sunlight. Logic bomb: Unauthorized instructions, often introduced with the Trojan horse technique, which stay dormant until a specific event occurs or until a specific time comes, as the instructions may keep checking the computer's internal clock , at which time they effect an unauthorized act. If a paper jam requires the run to be started again, arrange for appropriate parameters to be passed to prevent printing duplicates of checks already produced. Information system security aims to protect corporate assets or, at least, to limit their loss. Location details will be updated.
Information systems have to be auditable by design. In this environment, they proliferate through infected diskettes or programs downloaded from the Internet or other networks. Nonetheless, if only a few say, 2% for the sake of the argument of all employees are potential crooks, then the probability of getting two crooks on the same assignment by chance alone is about 0. These controls must ensure the following results: 5. Un caballo de Troya o troyano es un tipo de software malicioso que se hace pasar como un archivo legítimo o un programa útil, posiblemente, con el propósito de otorgar un hacker de acceso no autorizado a un ordenador. Analyze the users' information requirements, develops systems prototypes, and often designs information systems based on the requirements specification. In a decentralized structure: 1.
A systems designer translates these specifications of what the system is expected to do into high-level specifications for the needed system components. Computer viruses have become a pervasive threat in personal computing. Also to be considered are the losses due to the theft of intellectual property, such as software, product development information, customer information, or internal corporate documents. It is the process of one person assuming the identity of an authorized computer user by acquiring items, knowledge, or characteristics. Adequate insurance for the residual risk 2.
Controls of Last Resort: Disaster Recovery Planning Two controls of last resort should be available: 1. Este tipo de fraude se recibe habitualmente a través de mensajes de correo electrónico o de ventanas emergentes. Learn why this is so important and why. No obstante, este último ataca a los usuarios de computadoras. Confidentiality is the status accorded to data, limiting its use and dissemination. Probably the most important unrecognized threat today is the theft of portable computers, with access codes and information in their memories.
They need to ensure that the system is secure, and also auditable. Also, backup telecommunications facilities need to be specified. The principal areas of concern of application control are: 1. Such a department now often includes a group that performs information systems audits as well. It renders the encoded data useless to an interloper. Thus, the technique is important not only in the protection of the system boundary but also in the communications and database controls.
What crime is being committed? Control over operations personnel 3. How is an Information Systems Audit Conducted? Parity check in which each byte of data in storage contains an additional bit, called a parity bit, which helps detect an erroneous change in the value of a single bit during processing. Design of the system must be selected to match corporate objectives and then this design must be modified as the objectives change. A variety of security features are implemented to increase the effectiveness of passwords. Most proprietary software programs are distributed to customers as code in the form of an unreadable string of computer s. Read-only is a file attribute which only allows a user to view a file, restricting any writing to the file.
Detect and correct an exceptional situation. Must check that the appropriate system documentation is developed and maintained 4. Offenders can commit crimes but the amount of effort is burdensome and is very difficult. During systems maintenance, ensure that only authorized changes are made to the system and that the appropriate version of the system goes into operation Operations Controls Operations controls are the policies, procedures, and technology established to ensure that data centers are operated in a reliable fashion. Information systems controls are classified as: 1. This overlaying is known as zapping and the fix itself is a zap.
They study both the general and application controls in detail. Choose the statement below that identifies a difference between the two types of crimes: A. Encryption renders access to encoded data useless to an interloper who has managed to gain access to the system by masquerading as a legitimate user, or to an industrial spy who can employ a rather simple receiver to pick up data sent over a satellite telecommunications link. An independent audit departments exists in most of the country's large businesses. Now the lead investigator wants to interview the suspect. Participate in major milestones and sign off on the appropriate deliverables.