Finally, an effective proposal is judged on the quality of your writing and, therefore, it is important that your writing is coherent, clear, and compelling. A vague, weak or fuzzy proposal can lead to a long, painful, and often unsuccessful thesis writing exercise. Reference to findings should always be described as having already happened because the method of gathering data has been completed. The only results that are often not reported are those with no pattern at all; that is, results that are uninterpretable. Be concise, using non-textual elements appropriately, such as figures and tables, to present findings more effectively. Generally, you can have confidence that all of the significant conceptual categories have been identified if you start to see repetition in the conclusions or recommendations that are being made. This can be sorted, searched, diced and sliced in your familiar word-processor.
Doing Your Education Research Project. What are the implications of doing it? Guidelines on writing a research proposal Guidelines on writing a research proposal by Matthew McGranaghan This is a work in progress, intended to organize my thoughts on the process of formulating a proposal. This is particularly important if the problem is complex or multifaceted. Be clear and succinct in defining the research problem and what it is you are proposing to research. In this section you need to clarify what impact will your study have, what are the suggestions and potential changes in the field. S2 The whole thing S3 These three events T So the second Thesis is the whole sentence.
State the statistical results in the acceptable format for your discipline. In the first paragraph, the first sentence identifies the general topic area. Note the use of the past tense when reporting results. If your advisor won't talk to you, find another one or rely on 'the net' for intellectual interaction. The page length of this section is set by the amount and types of data to be reported. In addition to detailing your research design, you also must conduct a thorough review of the literature and provide convincing evidence that it is a topic worthy of study. Use some systematic way of recording notes and bibliographic information from the very beginning.
Writing a Results Section Too Much Information? Specify the question that your research will answer, establish why it is a significant question, show how you are going to answer the question, and indicate what you expect we will learn. If you are in doubt about how much to include, you can always insert your raw data into the appendix section, allowing others to follow your calculations from the start. Once you have a streamlined and informative results section, you can move onto the discussion section, where you begin to elaborate your findings. Another pointer is to keep in mind from the outset that this project is neither the last nor the greatest thing you will do in your life. Of course you will have to write the thesis in acceptable form, and you probably will discover things in the course of your research that were not anticipated but which should be addressed in your thesis, but the minimum core intellectual contribution of your thesis will be set by the proposal. Also note that the Results section reads more like a well-organized list than a story.
It should join the data analysis and possible outcomes to the theory and questions that you have raised. The proposal is, in effect, an intellectual scholastic not legal contract between you and your committee. In general, a compelling research proposal should document your knowledge of the topic and demonstrate your enthusiasm for conducting the study. Shoot for five pithy pages that indicate to a relatively well-informed audience that you know the topic and how its logic hangs together, rather than fifteen or twenty pages that indicate that you have read a lot of things but not yet boiled it down to a set of prioritized linked questions. The objectives of my proposed study of American Kestrels will be to examine possible relationships among and between hunting behavior, territory quality, and individual quality in male and female American Kestrels. An attempt will be made to capture all kestrels observed using bal-chatri traps baited with mice.
It is not uncommon to have unanticipated results that are not relevant to answering the research question. If raw data is to be included, place it in an appendix or set of appendices that are referred to in the text. It need not be exhaustive; relevance is 'key'. Useful References: Krathwohl, David R. Include any preliminary findings you have, and indicate what open questions are left. This is the preferred approach if you have multiple results of equal significance. Hypotheses should first be stated in theoretical terms and then in empirical terms Herek, 1995.
For perches, I will note the time a kestrel lands on a perch and the time until the kestrel either initates an attack or leaves for another perch i. However, focus on findings that are important and related to addressing the research problem. Results The following observations were made as a result of experiments conducted by Casey Hospital with respect to four types of E. One common way of getting around this is to be less specific in the text. The activity budgets of kestrels will also be determined by observing the frequency and duration of kestrel behaviors during randomly-selected 20-min observation periods i. If some of your results fail to support your hypothesis, do not ignore them. Literature review-based theses involve collection of information from the literature, distillation of it, and coming up with new insight on an issue.
If they help you organize your notes and thinking, that is the benefit. Report data in order to sufficiently justify your conclusions. Unlike an empirical article, you must not only describe your sample, but also must describe how you will gain access to your participants. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Methodology Overview of approach This section should make clear to the reader the way that you intend to approach the research question and the techniques and logic that you will use to address it. With grant proposals, you must have all data analysis strategies clearly planned so that a reviewer reading this section will have a clear picture of your entire project Taylor, 1995. Often the results of a study point to the need for additional background information or to explain the topic further, so don't think you did something wrong.