Feminist campaigns have changed societies, particularly in the West, by achieving women's suffrage, gender neutrality, equal pay for women, reproductive rights for women including access to contraceptives and abortion , and the right to enter into contracts and own property. Likewise, Lord Bryce compared the working of democracy in various countries and then came to conclusions with regard to relative merits and demerits of democracy. The social group consisting of traders, merchants and businessmen and later the industrialists also known as the bourgeois was the major beneficiary of this system. At the same time, we shall also discuss the nature of political science definition,theory, and scope. From Plato to Easton it has been interpreted in different ways. In the light of above analysis we can conclude that though there is a controversy as to the exact implication of the word participation, in practice in nowhere of the world hundred percent people cannot participate in the affairs of state and inspite of this we use the word. Industry has significant role in environmental protection.
Explanation of the Definition : We have stated only two definitions because all the definitions sketch the same thing so it is not necessary. This is especially so in a developing country like ours. Many feminists are of the opinion that inside the private world of family man exercises power or dominance over woman. Population, territory, government and sovereignty. It is power plus ligitimacy. The failure of the discipline to predict both the World Wars and the associated socio-political changes including revolutions in Russia and China and the independence movements in many colonies. Ideological power:resides in the prevailing ideas acceptable to the people.
Unlike, the ancient Greeks, we live in a large territorial states today. At first I thought not participating in election was okay, but in reality I am the one suffering from my. Wherever the State exists, there is also politics. Therefore empirical approach emphasized on the close link between political science and other disciplines such as psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. There are two advantages to study politics from the point of view of power- firstly, it focuses attention on process rather than on legal abstractions of the state. Imperialism has been a major force in shaping the modern world. Power refers to the ability of one person affecting the attitudes or action of another.
In ancient India, the antecedents of politics can be traced back to the Rig-Veda, Samhitas, Brahmanas, the Mahabharata and Buddhist Pali Canon. In this context, new definitions emerged. Polis or city - state was a small independent self - contained political society. I feel that there are too many variables in political beliefs that are gray areas and are subjective. Scope of political science with reference to human rights: The citizens have their civil, political and economic rights.
This new development is then a genuine revolution, not a reaction, not preservation, a reform not a counter-revolution. The study of environmental science makes us understand the scientific basis for establishing a standard which can be considered acceptably safe, clean and healthy for man and natural ecosystem. For liberty to be enjoyed by everyone, it should have reasonable restraints. Political Science, traditionally, begins and ends with the state. It is the art of government.
The new understanding of politics was that it is a struggle to share or influence the distribution of power, whether between states or among the groups within the state. He gives a positivist and non-normative meaning to the definition of politics. He published his book 'Politics' as a first systematic study of politics. Almond Powell and other modern American writers have studied political science by sociological, anthropological and psychological methods and criticised the traditional theory of political science on the grounds of parochialism and formalism. In contrast, the post-behaviorists accepted the achievements of the behavioral era, but at the same time sought to propel political science towards new areas.
All these also comprise the subject matter of the study of Politics. But political science does not confine its area to the past and present States only. Nevertheless, the most important part of the definition is people. Another difficulty in political science is that it not possible to have laboratory experiments in political science. Legal approach- Here the study of politics is linked with the study of legal or juridical processes constitutions and institutions created by the state for maintaining political organization.
Secondly, this approach pays greater attention to man as the basic unit of analysis. Early liberalism championed negative liberty. Stages of Evolution 1 philosophical: concerned with ends and purposes 2 institutional: concerned with political organization 3 behavioral: concerned with motivations and mechanism of human behavior 4 pluralistic: concerned with the interaction among groups and organizations 5 structural: concerned with the connection between the individual and the community 6 developmental: concerned with the process of growth, industrialization and change and the impact on government forms and policies. Emphasis should be on social change and not social preservation- the behaviouralists had confined themselves exclusively to the description and analysis of facts, without taking sufficient care to understand these facts in their broad social context. Then the vital question arose if political scientists did not find the solution of the ills of society and needs of mankind, then what was the use of the research? The state as the central concept of politics has a long history. Then the vital question arose if political scientists did not find the solution of the ills of society and needs of mankind, then what was the use of the research? He developed the social contract theory where he suggests that basis of any government has to be the consent and good of people.