Under high involvement, however, the 6-argument message did not increase agreement over the message containing only 3 strong arguments. The central route to persuasion occurs when a person is persuaded to act based on the arguments or the content of the message. Krugman in his presidential address before the American Association for Public Opinion Research on May 15, 1965. If these peripheral influences go completely unnoticed, the message recipient is likely to maintain their previous attitude towards the message. The audience is active here and they believe what is shown or told. The research design involved manipulating subjects' involvement high involvement subjects anticipated making a choice among several razor brands while low involvement subjects did not , argument quality strong versus weak message claims about the product , and the message endorsers celebrities versus average citizens. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology: 129.
In addition, credibility can also be used as a heuristic in peripheral thinking because when a speaker is seen as having a higher credibility, then the listener may be more likely to believe the message. However, if the message recipient has a strong, negative attitude toward the position proposed by the message, a an opposite effect is likely to occur. Simply classifying thoughts about the message claims as central and those involving nonclaim elements as peripheral is problematic. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation. Although potential answers will vary, advertisements using the central route of persuasion might involve a doctor listing logical reasons for drinking this product. Furthermore, students indicated that they learned more in courses that required more effort, regardless of the grades that they received in those courses Heckert et al. When people process information centrally, the cognitive responses, or elaborations, will be much more relevant to the information, whereas when processing peripherally, the individual may rely on heuristics and other rules of thumb when elaborating on a message.
Electronic Commerce Research and Applications. Try to make a strong argument. The model aims to explain different ways of processing stimuli, why they are used, and their outcomes on attitude change. The Kentucky Journal of Communication. An individual must have both motivation and the ability to pay attention, which leads to the central route to persuasion. The advertisement has shown facts and figures that really show the car to be better than what the person has been using.
For example, a typical study might simply manipulate source expertise and observe the attendant effects. In one study, Petty et al. The Elaboration Likelihood Model indicates the factors that determine which of these is more likely. I feel as if Ford failed to get their message out. According to the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, there are two main routes that play a role in delivering a persuasive message: central and peripheral.
This means that when the central route is taken involving high-elaboration thought in which all information is being carefully analyzed , the attitudes formed become more stable and less susceptible to counter-persuasion, whereas when the peripheral route is taken involving low-elaboration thought based on and shortcuts to establish an attitude short-term attitude change is more likely to occur. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In a similar vein, the remainder of this paper discusses both conceptual and methodological issues that future empirical endeavors may wish to address. Motivation to process the message may be determined by a personal interest in the subject of the message, or individual factors like the. Most negative intuitions exist within the realm of the peripheral route, and therefore to work against stigmas the general public needs to engage their central route of processing. There are times when people are motivated to pay attention to the facts during a speech or other persuasive communication and during those times are persuaded the most by a strong logical argument. Being at the high end of the elaboration continuum, people assess object-relevant information in relation to schemas that they already possess, and arrive at a reasoned attitude that is supported by information.
This paper tries to answer these questions through literature review and a qualitative research undertaken in the Indian context. This paper discusses a number of conceptual and methodological issues relevant to future research in this area, with particular emphasis on the role played by peripheral cues. Individuals' ability for elaboration is affected by distractions, their cognitive busyness the extent to which their cognitive processes are engaged by multiple tasks , and their overall knowledge. The use of famous actors and athletes to advertise products on television and in print relies on this principle. This is a direct route to persuasion that focuses on the quality of the information. Attitudes and Persuasion: Classic and Contemporary Approaches. An internal form of attitude change is cognitive dissonance or the tension we experience when our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are in conflict.
Sex differences in influenceability have emerged in the past when discrepant advocacies w ere accompanied by greater expertise in the subject matter by men or Women. According to the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, there are two main routes that play a role in delivering a persuasive message: central and peripheral Figure 2. Thus, when involvement is high, people follow the central route by basing their post-communication attitude primarily on their reactions to the message arguments. In fact, advertisements and other methods of persuasion count on the fact that we can be influenced in our opinions and attitudes. This ad could employ a peripheral cue as the basis for creating product preference. While watching one of her favorite shows, she sees a commercial for a pair of shoes that claim to provide extra heel support and increase the height of her jump.
Instead, their focus should be on the message endorser. The foot-in-the-door technique was demonstrated in a study by Freedman and Fraser 1966 in which participants who agreed to post small sign in their yard or sign a petition were more likely to agree to put a large sign in their yard than people who declined the first request Figure 3. It is a process of getting influenced by facts and reasoning. These cues will involve factors such as the credibility or attractiveness of the sources of the message, or the production quality of the message. Thank you 1 Briefly describe the magazine or newspaper advertisement you found that offers an example of peripheral route persuasion. In order to reduce dissonance, individuals can change their behavior, attitudes, or cognitions, or add a new cognition.